• Resilient Brains

    What is Resilience?

    There are more definitions for resilience than you could shake a stick at. Here we look at resilience from the context of an adolescent’s capacity to endure periods of intense stress without any long term negative impact on their mental health. Some brains are simply better able to weather the psychological duress of having to deal with the types of common childhood stresses known to leave kids vulnerable to mental health issues. These include poverty, neighbourhood violence, struggling schools and mental health problems of the parent(s). If you take a few moments to mull it over, it becomes obvious how these circumstances could leave children frazzled by an overwhelming burden of worry.

    Here’s one perspective. If parents have no room for financial manoeuvre, only just managing to keep up with the bills week after week, then there won’t be any spare cash to help the kids to get their hands on the material goods that they covet; whether it’s clothing, toys or tech. Children from all walks of life can show a spiteful streak when it comes to giving hell to whichever kid happens to stick out in the playground for being different and there are many all too obvious signs of being poverty-stricken that may lead to being singled out. If the merciless teasing becomes relentless then it has the has the potential to become problematic. While the bullying aspect might seem like a relatively minor issue in the stress-inducing stakes compared to going to bed cold and hungry, but the child’s perception in these matters is everything. The social stigma attached to being less well off than everyone else can damage self-esteem, particularly when it’s the source of daily playground mockery.

    If a kid is made to feel ashamed over and over again at school, for whatever reason, then chronically elevated stress levels can be potentially damaging to some of the critical processes of neurodevelopment. And as we shall discover below, brain pathways that connect frontal lobe regions with those on the inner surface of the cortex, appear to be particularly important in the resilient brain.

    The other three sources of childhood stress could also be viewed as relentless, thereby having potential for impeding important neurodevelopmental processes: the ever-present threat of getting sucked into neighbourhood violence, the perpetual turmoil induced by a primary caregiver whose mental illness makes home life a living hell and schools in which teachers struggle to wrestle order from chaos – all can send levels of a child’s cortisol (one of the stress hormones) shooting up on a daily basis over extended periods of time.

    Often there is little hope of making a meaningful impact on the external factors that conspire to send cortisol levels rocketing (poverty, parental mental illness etc) so the focus has shifted to trying to understanding the key factors involved in determining whether a child ends up with a resilient brain or not. Can interventions aimed at helping to build resilience in young people actually work? And what makes the critical difference in the makeup of brains that are able to endure high levels of stress without any long term complications and those brains that succumb?

     

    Building Resilience

    According to Harvard University’s Center on the Developing Child, resilience is built up over the course of childhood and involves four special ingredients. Two of these relate to a sense of meaningful attachment – close supportive relationships with specific adults and a broader range of looser connections that embed a child within a defined community. The last two components relate to the development of specific cognitive capacities that improve a young person’s well-being by making them feel both able and in control.

    The first ingredient is supportive adult-child relationships. This might be a parent or relative, but it could also be a teacher, trainer, coach or anyone else that can be relied upon to provide support when it is needed. A person the child knows will take the time to listen to them, offer guidance and essentially help them to feel that they do not have to take on the trials and tribulations of life alone. The second ingredient is feeling a part of some kind of broader cultural tradition, one that might give the child a sense of hope and faith that transcends the mundane goals of normal, everyday activities. Usually groups that provide this are centred around one or other of the mainstream religions.

    As I outlined in my latest book The Science of Sin, while science is great at identifying the critical factors that lead to good physical and mental health, it usually comes up short when finding fixes for the problem of social isolation. Being a part of a sports team or hobby group can provide a sense of being part of a community, but these options pale in comparison to traditions that provide an overarching philosophy on how to live a good life, a dedicated building in which to come together with other members of the community and a policy of encouraging acceptance of well-intentioned strangers. I don’t believe in God myself, but I have seen the capacity for people’s religions to give them a sense of hope and support in the face of inconquerable odds. For this reason I can see why the Harvard Institute on Child Health would have observed that helping children to connect with others from their traditional faith group can help them become more resilient.

    One of the two cognitive facets that needs nurturing to build resilient brains is the development of self-efficacy: feeling able and in control. The other is the ability to adapt to change and self-regulate behaviour. This boils down to being able to maintain a sense of being in control, even when adjusting to changes that are beyond the child’s control. Learning to self-soothe – calming yourself down when emotions start running high – is a key component of this skill. Mindfulness meditation has been identified a great way to develop such skills. It has been implemented in schools struggling with poverty and violence with phenomenal outcomes in terms of improved attendance and scholarship (Read about a compelling example of this here).

     

    What Does A Resilient Brain Look Like?

    During the first decade of life various miraculous processes culminate in the reinforcement of one particularly important brain pathway in the corpus callosum – the huge bundle of brain wires that connects the left and right hemispheres of the brain. A recent study by Galinowski and colleages investigated the structural differences in the corpus callosum of adolescents who had all endured significant and prolonged life stresses, yet some were deemed at low risk of developing mental illnesses (resilient) whilst others were at a high risk of psychological complications (vulnerable). But before we get into that, some context…

    Over the course of childhood our brains go through a series of vast and incredible changes. In the womb the outer cortex of every human foetus’s brain starts out as the tip of an extremely narrow and short tube. Over the course of the pregnancy, brain cells in this structure multiply at an astonishingly fast rate, migrating to form a six-layered sheet of densely interwoven brain wires (neurons) and a vast diversity of support cells (glia), eventually taking on its familiar, walnut-like, wrinkly, appearance by the time of birth. Having successfully made it’s way out of the womb and into the big wide world, the infant’s brain cell multiplication steps up a gear to achieve it’s full complement of 86 billion neurons by the age of five. From here on brain growth is mostly a case of making those neurons larger, developing the system of myelination whereby glial cells called oligodendrocytes apply a layer of electrical insulation to the brain wires to speed up the transmission of messages and each of those neurons make thousands of connections (synapses) with other neurons. MRI scans can track both of these processes with serial brain scans conducted at various stages of development – the progression of myelination can be observed by taking measure that correlate with white matter integrity and other measures can be used to track changes in the thickness of the surrounding grey matter. Interestingly, when a human brain reaches adolescence, rather than getting bigger and bigger, creating more and more synapses, the brain shifts gear .

    During adolescence the outer cortex of the human brain doesn’t simply get thicker and thicker. More new synapses are being created as the teen increases their repertoire of skills and abilities, but that is not the only process that is taking place at this stage in neurodevelopment. The synapses connecting together brain areas involved in supporting the improvement of their language, thinking, movement, memory and reasoning skills ARE being selectively bolstered, reinforced with extra synaptic connections to make the communication between relevant brain areas more efficient. Yet another process is simultaneously underway across the whole brain which causes the outer cortex to become thinner, overall, during the teenage years and beyond. The countless unused brain pathways are trimmed away, while those that are being used on a regular basis are maintained. As the former process of “synaptic pruning” progresses at a much faster rate than the latter, the net result is a thinning of the cortex. The rate at which different parts of the brain go through this process of cortical maturation has been tracked by an incredible team of neuroscientists in Paul Thompson’s lab. The process seems to reach completion first in the sensory parts of the brain at the back and sides of the brain, and last in the parts of the frontal cortex supporting higher level cognitive functions.

    Going back to the resilience study, Galinowski and colleagues observed that the integrity of the white matter tracts (NB neuronal brain wires wrapped in myelin are less dense than the outer cortex which is jammed full of synapses and cell bodies so it looks white in brain scans rather than grey) was higher in the front-most part of the corpus callosum in the brains of resilient adolescents versus vulnerable ones. When they ran tracer studies to see which brain areas were connected to each other by these particular information superhighways, the areas in question were frontal lobe regions involved in self-regulation and the anterior cingulate cortex; a brain area that should be familiar to anyone who’s read The Science Of Sin. The dorsal part of the ACC is known to be involved in the perception of physical and emotional pain specifically; and processing “conflict” more generally.

    The upshot is that the critical pathways that were observed to have better integrity (NB better system of insulating myelin to facilitate information exchange) in the more resilient adolescents may well be instrumental in enabling the prefrontal cortex to consciously dampen feelings of psychological turmoil. Presumably when supportive adult-child relationships and connections with the community are fostered in the first 10 years of life, as well as the facilitation of development of self-efficacy and self-control, these are the critical pathways that are protected against the negative impact of chronic stress. Now that we know where to look in the brain for hallmarks of resilience, we should be able to get a better handle on the effectiveness of other interventions that aim to nurture the capacity to endure an excess of stress without incurring psychological damage in the long run. Watch this space…

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  • Channeling Teen Rage into Healthy Eating

    Do you remember what being a teenager felt like? All that angst, doubt and self-consciousness? When I think back it seems nothing short of a miracle that we usually manage to get through those acne-plagued, self-esteem rollercoastering years of adolescence relatively unscathed.

    These days, in many respects, it’s harder than ever. The average 13-19 year old has to do battle not just with the usual growing pains, hormonal tampering with mood, body shape and appetite for risk, and the perpetual social jousting that takes place in classroom, playground and neighbourhood. The 21st century has brought with it new battlegrounds on which war must be waged on a daily basis during those tumultuous teenage years.

    One of these is the newfangled phenomenon of cyberbullying, another is the global fight against obesity. The former topic will be covered in a blog later on this year (to whet your appetite for this, a recent Geek Chic Weird Science podcast special comprised a two-part Social Media special that touched on this subject – part 1, part 2 – with London School of Economics assistant professor Ellen Helsper). Here, we’ll be focusing on the struggle with food, glorious food.

    When I were a lad…

    …there was always the odd fat kid or two in any given school year. These days the rate of childhood obesity has got truly out of hand. It has reached the point in the UK where one in five 14-year-olds is clinically obese. Who is feeding these children? And what exactly are they eating that makes them pack on so much subcutaneous fat? Most importantly, how might we turn back the tide of this waistline explosion?

    While our seal, dolphin and whale cousins need a thick layer of fat under their skin to help them retain body heat (to prevent it radiating away into the surrounding water) we humans have no such need for all that blubber. Back in the days where our ancestors lived under the shadow of the mortal threat posed by food scarcity, any subcutaneous fat could make the difference between life and death. In most parts of the developed world, the environmental constraints have shifted to produce problems associated with ubiquitous food availability resulting in extra body weight that provides no benefit whatsoever.

    Not only do we not need it, but all that excess body fat is actually extremely damaging. Firstly, wherever you see visible rolls of fat on the surface, fatty deposits deep within the body are usually causing havoc with the functionality of various vital organs. The visceral fat which throttles a person’s internal organs is particularly worrisome. Fatty deposits coating the inside of blood vessels leads to an increased threat of heart problems and strokes. Another direct consequence of a diet high in sugar is insulin resistance, leading to yet further health problems. And if all of that was not bad enough, excess body fat also raises levels of inflammation throughout body and brain, reducing obese people’s cognitive abilities compared to those of a healthier weight. Something needs to be done to help our children evade these various threats to their longevity and quality of life, before the future envisaged by the Pixar movie Wall-E becomes a reality…

    How did we get so overweight? One important factor is the advertising we are exposed to, which warps our attitudes toward food and tempts us to indulge in delicious yet unhealthy foods on a daily basis. Bad dietary choices are usually made primarily due to the powerful lure of immediate gratification, in the interests of saving money, or both. Sadly, the heavily-processed, yet tasty foods containing the most added salt, sugar and/or fat are often those that are the most affordable. Tasty and affordable maybe, but certainly not nutritious.

    In recent years advertising that specifically targets the adolescent market has gradually wangled its way into our midst. The financially lucrative, yet ethically dubious, strategy employed here is to entrain the daily habit of fast food, confectionery and fizzy pop early on in life. That way, the chances are that such eating habits will probably endure (generating huge profits for the companies that peddle such products) over the person’s entire lifetime. Great news for those in the business of selling these high fat, sugar loaded products, but devastating for the overall health of those who succumb. Not only that but there is evidence to suggest that the brains of overweight adolescents respond to the lure of high calorie drinks with all the hallmarks of addiction.

    What, if anything, can we do about this sorry state of affairs?

    A recent study demonstrated that simply revealing these cynical marketing tactics can be just the ticket to altering adolescents’ responses to fast food and sugary drink advertising. Not only that, but evidence was also presented in this paper to suggest that such an approach can influence their real life food and drink decisions. This study was published in the journal PNAS and suggests that one of our best weapons against childhood obesity is the natural proclivity for teenagers to feel outraged by social injustice. If you are worried about the waistline of the children in your life, you could do worse than reading Michael Moss’s book: Salt, Sugar, Fat – How the Food Giants Hooked Us. Sharing the shocking stories detailed within this book, and others like it, that revealing the boardroom level decisions that aim to increase profit margins by fattening up as many of us as possible, should be sufficient to light to touchpaper to their adolescent kegs of moral gunpowder. And in a manner that could well lead to them expressing their discontent with the status quo by opting, willingly, for healthier food and drinks.

    Surprising as it may seem, the oodles of money huge government-backed corporations make in the process of fattening us up with cheap and delicious foods and nutritionally empty foods, really can make teens want to eat less rubbish and more healthier options. By aligning the natural teenage desire for autonomy and social justice with healthy eating the test subjects reduced their preference towards unhealthy food and drinks by 7% and increased the rate of healthy choices by 11%. A modest difference, admittedly, but certainly a step in the right direction. Not only that but the participating anger level towards fizzy drink advertising increased significantly as a result of this intervention, suggesting that it may be an effective way of inoculating young people against the seductive impact of fast food advertising.

    This research raises the point that it could make sense to ditch the usual approaches to educating kids about the importance of a healthy diet in favour of lessons that reveal the sinister advertising tactics specifically targeted at getting the lowest socioeconomic status individuals hooked on fatty, sugary processed foods as early as possible. Such interventions seem to actively steer young adolescents clear of the high-fat/high-carbohydrate options on the basis that multinational companies profit hugely from brain-washing billions across the world to accept 9 spoonfuls of sugar in every “full fat” can of fizzy pop as normal and acceptable. While this study recruited just 536 different 13-14 year olds, who were randomly designated to one of three different groups: 1 group who received the exposé treatment, another received the traditional health messages and the final group who did nothing, it certainly suggests that if such an approach could be rolled out across the UK, it could well prove to be more effective than the old fashioned approaches to promoting health messages. Portraying healthy eating as a way to “stick it to the man” – and thus appealing to the typical adolescent’s soft spot for rebellion – seems a clever way of harnessing these instincts in a way that might just help teens keep their body weight in check.

    In addition to these monthly brain blogs, I tweet about brain-related research that hits the press on a daily basis (@drjacklewis) and do a fortnightly podcast about recent quirky science stories called Geek Chic’s Weird Science.

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  • Fourth Anniversary of Dr Jack’s Brain Talks for Secondary Schools

    Sydenham Paper Cutting 1In Sept 2013 I gave my “Brain Coach” talk at both Dulwich College and Sydenham High School. That’s the second consecutive year that Sydenham girls entering their GCSE exam year will get my crash course in applied neuroscience. The talk is summarised here on the Girl’s Day School Trust website. It covers changes that take place in their brains as they learn and various neuroscience-informed strategies to manage stress better, stabilise mood, boost problem solving and enhance exam performance. It’s the third year in a row that I’ve shared these insights with Dulwich lads about to embark on their A-levels (and I’ve just been invited back to speak to the Year 11’s in Sept 2014!). Nothing quite like repeat business to confirm you have a product that is highly valued and well received!

    Sydenham Paper Cutting 2I’d jump at the chance to give this talk at schools all around the country. Feedback from teachers year on year indicates that students really do benefit from a better understanding of what is going on within their skulls as they learn and acquire new skills. Understanding that all their effort and hard work actually leads to physical changes in the brain is highly motivating – the audience is left to connect the dots themselves – there’s no need to ram it down their throats. Realizing that feeling stressed is a sign that body and mind are being mobilized to deal with the cause of the stress turns a negative into a positive – simply by pointing out the common misunderstanding. And advice on how to reduce levels of the stress hormone cortisol when it all starts to become too much to bear gives the students a sense of control over their state of mind. Mnemonic techniques to help them retain important information in mind not just for exams, but for a lifetime – surely the whole point of education after all – has a completely transparent utility. Here’s some feedback from a teacher Lisa Cornell who invited me to speak at Sydenham High School:

    The talk .. was inspirational for staff and students alike. The students enjoyed your informal yet informative style. You made difficult concepts easy to grasp. They especially liked how you applied these high level ideas to their everyday lives and studying. You were witty and  most importantly not in the slightest bit patronising. You managed to use an array of high level language and technical terms [yet] alienated nobody. I particularly liked how you broke down the latin of long words (eg explaining adrenal).

    From a teacher point of view you were engaging, entertaining and a very safe pair of hands for our students to work with. A very good litmus test for any speaker is if students stay behind to speak with you. That you had a ten strong audience of Y11s for half an hour after home time says a lot. Some of those students who stayed I have never seen so enthusiastic about anything!”

    Sydenham Paper Cutting 3

    I would love to get up on stage in front of many more schools each year as I genuinely feel it is one of the best uses of my broad knowledge of neuroscience and aptitude for conveying it in plain english. If you would like me to speak at your or your teenager’s school then please do drop me a line.

    You might also consider following me on Twitter. I flag at least 3 interesting pearls of wisdom from the world of neuroscience and psychology research every day.

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  • Spring is in the Air by Dr Jack

    magpiesSpring has finally hit London. And like many people I found myself motivated to get outside and do some exercise.
    I went down to the park where I spent most of my childhood and, as I jogged, stretched and sprinted, I found myself marvelling at the wonders of biology.
    The trees were in full blossom, swarms of insects buzzing around, helping with the vital job of carrying pollen from flower to flower.
    Male magpies and blue tits were showboating – swooping, diving, in an incessant chase – competing for the amorous attentions of the female onlookers.
    Male pigeons were getting all ruffed up, pirouetting like whirling dervishes, in the hope of taking the fancy of their target lady pigeon.

    My attention then landed on a group of humans sat on the grass directly in front of me, as I exercised atop a council-provided rowing machine, where I observed courtship behaviours that were not dissimilar.

    In the parkSix males and six females, somewhere in their mid-teens and freshly discharged from school, were sat in a disjointed huddle.
    All the boys had their shirts off – despite it only being warm – far from the sweltering weather that usually triggers bare-chested exposure in the city.
    These young lads had their own method of peacocking, namely running around, wrestling good-naturedly, draping a fraternal arm over each others shoulders to emphasise what great friends they all were.
    All the while they flashed furtive glances at the girls to see whether or not these displays were eliciting approving looks from the young ladies.

    Pigeon CourtingThe girls, despite determinedly fixing their faces into expressions of nonchalance, were also quite flagrantly advertising their fledgling sexual wares.
    Only one girl in the group, for instance, had their shirt completely unbuttoned; she happened to be the only one in the group whose sexual hormones had already sculpted mature breasts.
    Another was at the opposite end of this spectrum – her ovaries had yet to unleash the torrent of oestrogen and progesterone that would one day increase the curvaceousness of her body.
    In the meantime, her growth hormones had clearly been surging and the resulting growth spurt had dramatically elongated her body and limbs.
    She had opted to roll her demure school-issue skirt up around the waist to reveal as much leg as possible – a strategy I distinctly recall the girls I used to hang around with as a teenager describing as: “standard”.

    Was it a coincidence that each of these girls happened to respond to the pleasant weather by advertising the assets they perceive to be most alluring to the boys? I think not.

    Was it a coincidence that the male humans and magpies responded to the sunshine by larking around to advertise their strength and agility? Of course not.

    It may not have been a conscious decision on their part, but nonetheless, both the males and the females of the group were engaging in behaviours indicating a desire to be noticed and approved of by the others.
    Peacock_Flirting

    All of these behaviours are orchestrated by the action of sex hormones upon regions of the hypothalamus that govern sexual behaviours including courtship displays.
    And when boiled down to their bare bones these courtship displays are surprisingly similar despite the considerable differences in cerebral sophistication of the different species.

     

     


    These brain blogs are currently a monthly, for daily instalments of life through the eyes of a neuroscientist, please consider following me on Twitter.

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  • Brain Benefits of Volunteering by Dr Jack Lewis

    VinspiredVinspired is a UK youth volunteer organisation who, earlier this year, commissioned me to explore the academic literature to establish if volunteering is good for adolescent and young adults’ brains. Vinspired is not just any youth volunteer organisation, it is extremely progressive, encouraging young people not just to sign up to one of the thousands of existing projects available around the whole country, but also to identify new opportunities to volunteer in the local community. Once engaged in clocking up volunteer hours on their chosen project they are encouraged to film their activities and post it online so that other young people can take inspiration from their activities. Tonight at the Roundhouse in London’s Chalk Farm the regional winners of the annual competition come together to find out who will win the overall prize. I feel privileged to have received an invite and based on what I heard from Vinspired people attending the BetaGen launch in Jan, I’m sure there will be plenty of inspiration.

    Vinspired FirewomnVolunteering involves helping other people for free. On a superficial level instead of financial remuneration what the volunteer gets out of it is official recognition from Vinspired for the number of hours they have put into their charitable activities so that this information is beyond dispute when described on the person’s CV. And having such things on the CV really does help employers differentiate between the good and the very good candidates. On a slightly deeper level it provides the opportunity to learn valuable new skills on the job and to be in the firing line of any unexpected job opportunities that might spontaneously arise in that working environment. Most importantly for me, it gives the opportunity for young people to experience the intrinsic pleasure of prosocial behaviour, to enjoy the psychological benefits of belong to a group of individuals working together to improve something important in their local community and to feel the sense of pride that comes from striving towards and reaching a meaningful goal.

    VinspiredFootballNeuroimaging studies have demonstrated that when a person unexpectedly wins some money, the pleasure pathways of the brain become more active. These same brain structures become less active when a person experiences an unexpected financial loss. Broadly speaking this accounts for the increase in happiness that we feel when we win and the decrease in happiness we feel when we lose. If however money is taken out of a players account (strictly speaking a financial loss) and moved into the account of a worthy charity, activity levels in the pleasure pathways do not decrease, but instead increase. And if others are able to witness the generous donation to charity the activity of the pleasure pathways increases even more!

    VinspiredVolunteersThis, I believe, helps to explain why our first instinct when we encounter a person in need is to help them. Prosocial acts are often not reciprocated by the person in need. Indeed, they are usually in no position to pay back the act of generosity, now or ever. But in the short term the giver of help benefits from a feeling of pleasure generated by the brain’s reward pathways in response to generous, unselfish behaviour. Furthermore such behaviours also earn the respect and admiration of other people, providing a sense of belonging and acceptance that is incredibly important to psychological wellbeing. This is particularly the case during adolescence when family ties often become strained and friendships are in a constant state of flux. Several studies conducted in the 1990’s indicated a range of psychological benefits enjoyed by individuals who engaged in helpful behaviour well into adulthood i.e. volunteers. They found that not only do volunteers experience greater personal happiness (Ellison, 1991), self-esteem (Gecas & Burke, 1995) and life satisfaction (Wheeler et al, 1998), but they are also less prone to depression (Rietschlin, 1998).

    In the long term, society – dependent as it is on cooperative behaviour between its members to function properly – repays consistent prosocial behaviours by bestowing privileges and granting favours. And tonight, I’m very much looking forward to seeing some Vinspiring young people being officially acknowledged and placed on a pedestal to reward their consistent selflessness.

    VinspiredGroupThe secret of our species’ success is our ability to form flexible cooperative groups that together achieve more than the sum of their parts. Prosocial behaviours rewarded and encouraged by the Vinspired annual awards encourages yet more people to get involved, generating more positive experiences of trusting and being trusted. Trust is the vital glue that makes groups thrive and membership of a group increases a person’s sense of belonging – so vital for psychological wellbeing.

    Long live Vinspired. And if you’ve never volunteered before – young or old – get involved. The investment of your time pays out in a currency that money can’t buy.

    If you liked this you’ll love my daily tweets, so please consider following me on Twitter.

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  • Adolescent Brains in the 21st Century by Dr Jack

    I was once told that adolescence is the hardest thing I would ever have to do in life. Up to that point in time I had got the overwhelming impression that most adults wished they could go back to the simple life they seemed to distinctly remember enjoying during childhood. All this smacked of rose-tinted glasses to me, but still I asked myself what exactly was I doing so wrong to find the teenage years a bit of a grind.

    Teenagers tend to experience life in the extreme. The highest highs rub shoulders with the lowest lows. They tend to experience everything as either fabulously exciting, depressing, or mind-numbingly boring, with very little in between. There are a variety of reasons why this is the case:

    • during adolescence the brain is a patchwork quilt of work-in-progress (see video below)
    • it is undergoing a neurochemical conspiracy that simultaneously amplifies emotions
    • whilst encouraging risk taking and exaggerating perceived benefit

    …all in the absence of any extensive experience that, in adults, can occasionally step in to trump the usually erroneous risk/benefit calculations that accompany every decision at an unconscious, implicit level.

    I personally found the acknowledgement that being a teen is tough to be profoundly reassuring. Now as a neuroscientist I can go one step further by actually showing WHY being a teenager will always feel tough at times. More importantly I will describe why teenagers of today will turn into adults that are even more different from the previous generation than ever before in the history of man.

    Human brain maturation does not reach completion until after adolescence. During the teenage years the brain is literally caught midway between adulthood and childhood. In the mid-teens cerebral maturation looks like a patchwork quilt, with some areas that have already reached their adult form intermingled amongst others that have not changed significantly since childhood. Yet other regions of cortex find themselves in a transition state part way between the two extremes. This is why a teenager can seem so bright and intelligent one minute, whilst making the most disasterous decisions and over-reacting in the most outrageous emotional outbursts the next. There is a child and an adult co-existing in the brain of a teen. Below is a video that tracks the brain’s maturation over the course of adolescence starting in the early teens and ending in late teens (blue colour = mature cortex; so keep an eye out for how much green, yellow, orange and red is still in the mix throughout most of adolescence).

    The process of adolescent brain maturation, counterintuitively, does not involve an increase in the thickness of the brain’s outer surface (the cortex). On the contrary, it actually involves a reduction in cortical thickness – as less important synaptic connections and brain pathways are “pruned” away; presumably to free up resources for more intensively-used neural networks. This process enables the brain to function more and more efficiently the more certain behaviours are repeatedly performed and elaborated upon. Skills that we acquire with a great deal of time and effort during childhood are performed effortlessly by the time we reach adulthood.

    The human brain will adapt to any environment with which many, many hours are spent interacting. These days the real life immediate environment of a teenager’s home, school, playground, social settings etc in which they spend their waking hours is increasingly supplemented by a wide variety of virtual and online spaces and places into which innumerable hours are poured. This means that digital natives – kids that cannot remember a time before the internet – are going through their “synaptic pruning” maturation phase of accelerated teen brain development synergistically with virtual, as well as real, worlds. The brains that result from this interactive process will be specialised differently to those honed during a twentieth century adolescence.

    Cause for alarm? Well, maybe yes, maybe no. It will undoubtedly be a mixed bag. Brain specialisation to improve efficiency in the execution of one behaviour will always come at the expense of specialisation that could have been invested in something else. This is displacement.

    When time spent playing massive multiplayer online games (MMOG) entirely displaces time spent engaging in old fashioned face-to-face interaction with a friend or group of friends certain brain areas will be improved in preference to others. That teenager would develop superior visuospatial, rapid task-switching and quick decision making abilities, but at the expense of social skills; unless time is also invested in extensive face-to-face communication with peers. Social networking and instant messenging services actually takes this social displacement to a whole different level by actively disrupting what little time is acutally spent in the company of real people.

    Teen social lives are increasingly becomeing less about the face-to-face and much more about face-down-to-phone. The right to choose which smartphone alerts they do and don’t respond to are waived in favour of a slavish dependency. The attention of many teens is immediately diverted to any BBM, Twitter, Facebook etc alert that squarks and vibrates from their smartphone – regardless of where they are or who they are with. This constant disruption must surely degrade the quality of in person social interaction and brain specialisation supporting this vital skill. So does this mean the art of conversation is utterly doomed?

    If teens can be made aware of the need to take control of their digital consumption then there is hope. Otherwise they’ll find themselves distinctly uncomfortable being in the same room as other people and will much prefer to communicate through the written word – a scenario that will inevitably leave them feeling empty. Brains that evolved to communicate much more effectively through body language than speech will inevitably miss the physical presence of another person when communication becomes exlusively remote. Not to mention the fact that physical touch is one of the primary ways in which a brain is inspired to activate brain circuitry that makes a human being feel safe, secure and content.

    In addition to these monthly brainposts you can catch daily #braintweet by following me on Twitter.

    Please don’t leave a comment (spambot overload) but I would love to hear from you so please do send me an email.

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  • What Goes On in a Teenage Brain? by Dr Jack Lewis

    At the onset of puberty the grey matter reaches maximum thickness and that key process of maturation, neuronal pruning, begins in the adolescent brain. This process does not occur uniformly across the whole brain but instead starts at the back of the brain and gradually progresses towards the front over a period of several years. Research at the National Institute of Mental Health in the US has tracked these changes using MRI to create a colour-coded animation that gradually progresses from an early teenage brain to a late teenage brain with red indicating where the grey matter is thickest, yellow a little thinner, green a little thinner again and finally the thinnest (and most mature) brain areas in blue:

    If you pause the video after about 2-3s you can see the status of the brain in the mid-teens – it is quite literally suspended half way between the adult and child form – some brain areas have fully matured by this point in life (blue), but there is a vast patchwork of reds, yellows and greens indicating many brain areas that are still in their childlike form. If you re-start the video you’ll notice right at the end the very last brain area to go from “almost mature” green to “fully mature” blue is at the front of the brain, within the prefrontal cortex. The dorsolateral part of the prefrontal cortex (the upper side parts of the brain region residing behind your forehead) is responsible for impulse control in the mature fully developed brain.

    Adults who have brain damage in areas of the prefrontal cortex lose their ability to control their anger – reacting in a highly aggressive manner at the slightest provocation. Remind you of anyone? When the hormones of adolescence are running riot, teenagers can often find themselves in situations that induce feelings of helplessness and frustration, which invariably finds expression as anger. This happens because prefrontal brain areas that are used to exert control over impulsive behaviours in adults are not yet fully developed. The important thing to remember is that late development of these important brain areas is not necessarily a mistake and may not, frustrating as it may be for the poor, long-suffering parents, be a bad thing. The inability of teens to control their aggression and arguments that their crankiness causes may actually help to break reliance on parental support, encouraging them to test the waters of independence in preparation for independent adult life.

    In addition to these brainblogs you can follow Dr Jack on Twitter to catch his daily #braintweet.

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  • How Teens Learn So Much So Quickly by Dr Jack Lewis

    High neuroplasticity means kids seem to absorb new information like a sponge

    Neuroplasticity – the ability of the brain to adapt to the specific demands of the environments in which a person spends their waking hours. It occurs via reinforcement of connections between some brain cells (neurons) and weakening those between others. Neuroplasticity is at an all time high during childhood. This is primarily why kids seem to be able to absorb information like a sponge and pick up new skills so effortlessly.

    Children’s brains are in a special, highly-adaptive state, enabling them to pick up new abilities very easily and develop a large repertoire of them very rapidly in preparation for adult life. That’s not to say that you cannot teach an old dog new tricks – it’s just that older brains have to put in more time and effort to pick up new skills. As with all things, the more you do something the easier it becomes. It may sound odd but, in a manner of speaking, you need to learn to learn, and then it comes easy. Older people tend to not bother trying to learn as intensively as during childhood, so when they do try, as they are out of the habit of learning, it all seems much harder. The trick is to never stop learning. Get back in the habit of learning, as you were naturally inclined to be during childhood, and learning becomes much easier, because your brain goes back into the “learning mode” i.e. your brain’s neuroplasticity increases.

    The more a specific mental function is practiced, whether performing coordinated body movements, reading, engaging in conversation, experimenting with imagination, music, gadgets, whatever, the quicker, more accurately and more easily it can be performed the next time round. From day-to-day these improvements are usually not very noticable. But across a timeframe of weeks or months these tiny, incremental progressions add up into great leaps forward.

    Practice means more brain connections and better mental function

    Any particular mental function involves a different set of brain areas that must communicate with each other via rapid fire electrical messages. Connections between brain areas that regularly work together to perform a specific mental function are strengthened, whilst others that are rarely used are eventually chopped away. That is one of the most surprising findings about brain development. You would think that the more you learn the more brain cells are created and the brain gets larger. In actual fact the complete opposite is true. Over the course of adolescence, as the ability to write, calculate, communicate, use tools, acquire knowledge and many other skills improve, a whopping great 33% of the brain’s neurons are trimmed away. And that’s a fact. Adolescence is all about pruning away brain cells that aren’t providing a useful function in order to free up precious resources and make way for extra connections to be made between brain cells that ARE often used.

    The grey matter (crinkly outer layer) contains synapses that connect neurons together

    The upshot is that the more complex, rich and varied a person’s experiences over the course of their childhood, the more complex, rich and varied the connections between its brain cells; ultimately translating into a broader repertoire of capabilities. The importance of a parent’s influence on the development of a child’s brain cannot be over-emphasised. Parents either do or do not provide a stimulating environment in which to stretch and challenge their child’s brain. They may or may not efficiently guide, nurture and encourage the development of skills, new experiences and abilities. This does not have to incur expense. Encouraging a young brain to explore and engage with their environment, to communicate openly and to feel free to ask as many questions as they want is key to enabling a brain to develop.

    In addition to these weekly blogs you can follow Dr Jack on twitter to catch his daily #braintweet.

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